The term airborne particulate matter is a term used to define liquid and solid particles dispersed in air. Which are larger than individual molecules (molecules of approximately 1 nm in diameter  ) and smaller than  500 µm  . Suspensions are very diverse in both sex and size, but depending on their size, there are three types of coarse particles, either PM 10 fine particles or PM 2.5  and ultra fine particles. Or PM 0.1  divided.


Very fine particulate matter PM0.1

This group contains particulate matter with a diameter of one tenth or less and the largest number of particles in this group. In terms of surface area, these particles are the most dominant airborne particles, but have a small share in the overall mass of the airborne particles. These particles are mainly caused by combustion and are secondarily generated as secondary particles from gas to particle conversion. These particles are inherently unstable and coagulate to form larger particles. Sulfates and nitrates are the predominant compounds in this group.

The fine particles penetrate into the lower respiratory tract and into the alveoli of the lung and cause numerous cardiopulmonary effects.

Particulate matter less than two and a half microns PM2.5:

These particles have a diameter of two and a half microns or less which is approximately 1.30 in diameter for human hair and are also known as fine particles. The chemical composition of the particles varies by location, time, and climate, and its sources of emissions include a variety of combustion activities (motor vehicles, power plants, wood burning, etc.) and specific industrial processes. This type of particulate contamination occurs both directly and in the form of secondary pollutants in the atmosphere. Sulfates and nitrates are in this group.

Health studies have shown a significant association between exposure to fine particles and premature death from heart and lung disease. Fine particles can exacerbate heart and lung disease and have been linked to such effects: cardiovascular symptoms. Cardiac arrhythmias. Heart attacks. Respiratory symptoms. Asthma attacks. And bronchitis. These effects can result in increased hospital admissions, emergency rooms, absenteeism from school or work, and activity days. People who may be particularly susceptible to exposure to fine particles include people with heart and lung disease, the elderly, and children.

SO2 SO2:

Sulfur dioxide is a colorless, non-explosive gas that has a suffocating odor and weighs almost twice as much air as one of the air pollutants and is also estimated to remain in the air for an average of 2 to 4 days. . More than 80 percent of human sulfur oxides are produced during the combustion of fossil fuels from fixed sources of contaminants. Of this amount, power plants account for 85 percent and cars for only 2 percent. Oil refineries, copper, paper and cement plants are also non-combustible sources of sulfur oxide.

Effects of sulfur dioxide gas:

  1. Respiratory insufficiency
  2. Decreased lung defense system
  3. Exacerbation of heart and lung diseases
  4. Destruction of crops, plants and leaves of trees
  5. One of the causes of acid rain


NO2 Nitrogen Dioxide:

It is reddish brown and has a very nasty smell. Nitrogen dioxide is one of the most important air pollutants. Every year millions of tons of this gas are produced by human activities, especially the consumption of fossil fuels. Nitrogen dioxide in combination with humid air produces nitric acid, which causes severe metal decay. Also at high concentrations, it creates fog and reduces the field of vision and has a severe negative effect on plant growth. It also has a greenhouse effect. The sources of this pollutant’s production are burning gasoline, natural gas, coal, oil and also at power plants at high temperatures.

The effects of nitrogen dioxide gas:

  1. Causing burning in the lungs
  2. Decreased respiratory resistance
  3. Ozone production
  4. Production of acid rain
  5. May – Photochemical smoke production

O3 Ozone:

Ozone is created by combining three oxygen atoms and is a strong oxidizer. Ozone at ground level or bad ozone, referred to as pollutants, is a secondary pollutant that is not released directly into the air but by chemical reactions between nitrogen oxides (NOx) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Created in the presence of sunlight. Emissions from industrial and power plants, automobile engine exhaust, gasoline vapors and chemical solvents are some of the major sources of NOx and VOC production. Ozone in indoor environments is generated by air cleaners, UV lamps, photocopiers and laser printers.

The effects of ozone gas:

Loss of lung tissue and decrease its function
Chest pain and cough
Asthma attacks
Decrease in crop yields
Forest depletion
in photochemical fog formation
Damage to rubber and plastic materials

The rest of the article will be published in the next section.

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